Books by A.O. Kime
"Metaphysical realities in America's politically-challenged democracy"
"A sagacious accounting of the Stone Age and the beginnings of civilization"
U.S. colleges and trade schools
Odd combination of directories you think? See 'faces'
A.O. Kime Articles:
Shoofly Village ruins
Stone Age history
Stone Age timelines
Stone Age tools
Dynamics of now
Evil (nature of)
Gift of life
Light (nature of)
Time (nature of)
Curse of science
Int'l Criminal Court
Rule of law
(2nd edition - July 2007) by A.O. Kime
for information on 'renting' this article, see Rent-a-Article
In 1996 near Kennewick, Washington, the ancient human remains of a male subject
were found and his skull - it seemed to many - had the cranial/facial
features of a Caucasian... and therefore distinctively different from a typical
Mongoloid (Asian/American Indian). It was later determined through radiocarbon
dating that these remains were 8,400 to 9,500 years old. The very idea that a Caucasian
was actually in America that long ago sparked a lot of interest and spawned dozens
of anthropological examinations, tests and studies. By the year 2000,
at least 18 recognized scientists (and scholars) were involved.
Aside from indications the so-called ‘Kennewick Man’ had Caucasian roots, there is evidence he had experienced a crescendo of violence and an untimely death. He had a spear-point embedded in his pelvis bone, had a major chest injury and his elbow was fractured.
DNA analysis would surely verify he was actually Caucasian, everyone
knew, except none of the laboratories could extract a testable sample.
Meanwhile, during this examination period, five American Indian tribes were
insisting on possessing these remains for burial purposes. The tribes were citing
their legal right (as claimants) under the 1990 Native American Graves Protection and
Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). The Indians were stalled however until the various
examinations were completed.
Due to the fact DNA analysis was not technically possible, it was therefore necessary to rely on other means to determine the ancestry of these remains but it ended up being more-so the legal criteria - and less-so the scientific assurance - which ultimately determined these remains were of Mongoloid (Asian) origins… effectively meaning that he was, from a legal standpoint more than from a scientific standpoint, an ‘America Indian’.
Was politics involved as some believe? Well, a September 21, 2000 decision by the then Secretary of Interior Bruce Babbitt suggests exactly that. He determined the remains of Kennewick Man are ‘culturally affiliated’ with five area tribes (the claimants) except he did so without sufficient evidence to back it up.
According to the statute, in order to determine a relationship (cultural affiliation) to a given tribe, it must rely on a "preponderance of the evidence based upon geographical, kinship, biological, archaeological, anthropological, linguistic, folkloric, oral traditional, historical, or other relevant information or expert opinion."
In the Kennewick Man’s case, this statue was poorly satisfied, relying entirely on the geographical location of the discovery and ‘oral traditions’. But it is inconceivable that any 'oral traditions' could survive 9,000 years... however broad the scope of its meaning. Yet, the amount of evidence collected may not matter if the following definition according to the National Park Service is true:
“As defined in NAGPRA, "Native American" refers to human remains and cultural items relating to tribes, peoples, or cultures that resided within the area now encompassed by the United States prior to the historically documented arrival of European explorers, irrespective of when a particular group may have begun to reside in this area, and, irrespective of whether some or all of these groups were or were not culturally affiliated or biologically related to present-day Indian tribes.”
This means any ancient human remains, any at all, discovered in America are considered ‘Native Americans’. According to that then, all that is necessary is to establish a date, the rest of the evidence has now been rendered largely irrelevant for this purpose. Whether a specimen was Asian, Caucasian, African or a Jaredite sheepherder, that doesn’t matter… if he/she is found to be older than Columbus then he/she is a Native American. While that may sound logical on the whole... except 'Native American' has become synonymous with "American Indian". Blame it on political correctness?
Note: While the above National Park Service definition is undoubtedly correct, since I can’t imagine them concocting it, I could not find it legally described in that manner under the law… although I didn’t do an exhaustive search. The NAGPRA glossary states only this: “Native American: Of, or relating to, a tribe, people, or culture that is indigenous to the United States. [25 USC 3001 (9)] Of, or relating to, a tribe, people, or culture indigenous to the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. [43 CFR 10.2 (d)] “
Archaeologists are not happy with the decision that Kennewick Man was
determined to be an “Native American’, not because any ancient remains found
in America qualifies, regardless of race, but because the
decision implies that a 'Native American' is synonymous with 'American Indian'
giving Indian tribes a claim whether culturally affiliated or not. While
scientists were unable to extract a DNA sample from Kennewick Man using the
current technological techniques, it is possible future techniques could… except
that, once an Indian tribe gets a hold of him, and re-buries him, Kennewick Man
won’t be available for testing anymore. It would be of significant scientific,
historical and cultural value to know the truth in this matter.
If Kennewick Man had the features of a Mongoloid (Asian), then little doubt would remain… but he didn’t have Mongoloid features, he had the features of a Caucasian which begs future testing. The Indian tribes could have a lot at stake here if it was ultimately proven Caucasians had been in America first... or even if they arrived about the same time. Perhaps this suggests the real reason behind the tribes claim... they want to 'bury the evidence'. If, however, testable samples were extracted and preserved for future DNA testing, and if the results substantiated the Kennewick Man was Caucasian... then the exasperated soul could be destined to another re-burial somewhere else. Surely not permanently however, with the snowballing effect of politically correctness, those of English heritage will soon be buried all in one place, those of Germans heritage in another, and so on and so forth. Of course then, cowboys would be forced into being buried with city-slickers and Democrats with Republicans. At any rate, the business of grave-moving is sure to flourish in the coming years.
It seems certain future discoveries of possible Caucasian cavemen in America will develop into a fight similar to what is happening in Jerusalem… being battles over the authenticity and age of an artifact. After all, the most ancient artifact found in Jerusalem would carry a lot of weight in the religious claims to that ancient city. But, will there ever be a laboratory whose radiocarbon dating the Jews and Muslims can mutually agree on? I think not. The Palestinians certainly wouldn’t trust a laboratory in Tel Aviv. It all boils down to this… if a laboratory doesn’t produce a date a particular group wants… then the test won’t be accepted by them as scientifically accurate. The history of Jerusalem will never be agreed upon and perhaps now, due to NAGPRA, not the pre-recorded times in American either.
The situation is worse in America however, the American Indians, under NAGPRA, can lay claim to all of American antiquity… automatically, without conditions, regardless of what it is.
It could even get ridiculous… a 1999 BBC documentary purportedly aired that
in 1996 five fishermen from Africa, their small fishing boat having been caught
in a storm and swept away by the ocean currents, ended up in South America. Three
of the five survived the trip. If that can happen even accidentally, then if an
ancient Egyptian ship also accidentally ended up in South America, then proceeded
to navigate its way up to North America where its wreckage was ultimately found,
any Egyptian treasures would then belong to the American Indians.
Under NAGPRA, the American Indians could even lay claim to the wreckage of an alien space ship if it was determined to have crashed before the Europeans arrived. This arrival date, I presume, is 1492; the year Columbus ‘discovered’ America. Or is it when the Vikings came in the 11th century? According to Hindu legend, perhaps it's when sailors from India conquered North and South America in 1500 B.C. as was pointed out in the Journey to Baboquivari article (Viewzone website).
If the angel Gabriel was found chained to a 1,000 year old sequoia tree,
then he too would belong to the American Indians. The Indians would get no
argument from others on this claim however… after all, only the inhabitants
could be guilty of such a dastardly deed.
Of course, other dastardly deeds would include genocide, a practice seemingly common in ancient times. It is believed all the Neanderthal were purposefully eliminated, and countless other attempts at genocide were made throughout the ages… of a history characterized by groups often trying to eliminate each other. King Edward wanted to eliminate the Scots seemingly and Hitler certainly tried to eliminate the Jews. And pygmies were probably on everyone’s hit list, perhaps the reason for the now-extinct Australian pygmies. Weirdness is despised by humans... only people with the same weirdness get along.
Along with the claims, there is apparently some evidence that ‘non-Mongoloid’ peoples once existed in South America in ancient times. They are purported to resemble (cranial/facial) Africans and the aborigines from Australia. The aborigines? Well, since aborigines once traversed the ocean some 40,000 to 80,000 years ago, it shouldn't be unreasonable to assume they've done it since.
So, did the Americans Indians commit genocide? Like most all other groups in
ancient times, they probably tried… and perhaps, in some cases, succeeded. This
would include Mongoloid tribes trying to eliminate each other... the
Shoofly Village Ruins may be further testimony
to that. As far as trying to eliminate the ancient Caucasians, it will take more
than a few killed by arrows to know for sure. Who knows… maybe Kennewick Man got
what he deserved. Maybe his jealous wife let fly the spear. Or maybe the Indians
rightfully killed him because he was going around promoting the idea of governance
Last modified: 03/04/16